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Many victims in countries such as South Africa and India where corrective rape is most prevalent suffer from a strong sense of insecurity and disempowerment due to strong homophobia in their communities. This homophobia can lead to both physical and psychological violence. There have been at least 30 lesbians who have been murdered in South Africa in the last 15 years because of their sexual orientation. Children in India have been speaking out about how their parents are sanctioning the child's sexuality by using "corrective rape therapy" same as corrective rape.
In India, there is a general discomfort with discussing homosexuality, even if an individual identifies as homosexual. This discomfort comes from the overall negative attitude towards homosexuality and the fact is that individuals in India who identify as homosexual are victimized at a higher rate. There is also a high level of negativity towards the trans community in India. Religious commitments tend to be very strong in traditional cultures and this is where much of the tension and poor perception came from. According to statistics from the Crisis Intervention Team of LGBT Collective in Telangana, India, there have been 15 reported instances of corrective rape that have been reported in the last 5 years.
Amnesty International has received reports of violence against lesbians in Jamaica , including rape and other forms of sexual violence. Lesbians reportedly have been attacked on the grounds of mannish physical appearance or other visible signs of sexuality. Some reports of abduction and rape come from inner-city communities, where local non-governmental organizations have expressed concerns about high incidences of violence against women.
In South Africa, women have less sexual and economic power than men. One in four men admit to having sex with a woman who did not consent and nearly half of these men admitted to raping more than once. The perpetrator may claim to be teaching the women a lesson on how to be a "real woman". The South African Constitution is one of the most progressive constitutions in the world. It states that no person shall be discriminated against based on his or her gender, race , or sexual orientation. The reason for this discrepancy between the law and practice is a result of heteronormativity and homophobia in South Africa.
Heteronormativity can be defined as "the institutions, structures of understanding, and practical orientations that make heterosexuality not only seem coherent—that is organised as a sexuality—but also privileged". Black lesbians in South Africa are not only excluded because of their sexual orientation but also because of their ethnicity. As displayed in the media, most homosexuality is displayed as white, leaving black lesbians in South African even more marginalized. According to Human Rights Watch , in the last 20 years, attitudes toward homosexuality have become worse in South Africa.
Corrective rape is on the rise in South Africa. More than 10 lesbians are raped weekly to correct their sexual preferences, as estimated by Luleki Sizwe, a South African nonprofit. Although it is thought to be uncommon, men also become victims of corrective rape.
One South African man stated, "Lesbians get raped and killed because it is accepted by our community and by our culture.
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Galip Asvat, a successful hair salon business owner, is a gay man born in Klerksdorp. On his attack, he said, "They thought I was a woman, and when they found out I was a man, that's when they became even more violent. Sizakele Sigasa, a lesbian activist living in Soweto , and her partner Salome Masooa were raped, tortured , and murdered in July South African lesbian- gay rights organizations, including the umbrella-group Joint Working Group, said the attack was driven by lesbophobia.
Simangele Nhlapo, member of an HIV-positive support group was raped and murdered in June, along with her two-year-old daughter; and Madoe Mafubedu, age 16, was raped and stabbed to death. On 28 April , year-old soccer player Eudy Simelane was abducted, gang-raped and killed in KwaThema , her hometown near Johannesburg. In , two writers from South African men's magazine FHM were fired as a result of corrective rape jokes they made on Facebook.
After a disciplinary hearing on Friday, July 19, , FHM dismissed both men from their positions, calling their comments "entirely unacceptable". The Convention's duty to modify the conduct of private citizens to ensure equality for women covers attitudes that include the inferiority of women and stereotyped gender roles, which arguably encompass the animus toward gay women that motivates many men to commit corrective rape.
The NTT has established a rapid response team to attend to unsolved criminal cases as a matter of urgency and produced an information pamphlet with frequently asked questions about LGBTI persons. Radebe stated that the Department of Justice acknowledged the need for a specific legal framework for hate crimes and that the matter would be subjected to public debate.
In March , there was an article published that stated that there are about 10 new cases of corrective rape a week in Cape Town. Five cases in which the victims were lesbians or transgender males were reported in Uganda between June and November, In the United States , Brandon Teena — is one of the best-known victims of corrective rape and thereafter murder for being a trans man. State Department report on Zimbabwe states, "In response to social pressure, some families reportedly subjected their LGBT members to corrective rape and forced marriages to encourage heterosexual conduct.
Such crimes were rarely reported to police. Women, in particular, were subjected to rape by male family members.
Child sponsorship charity ActionAid has published an article discussing corrective rape, and see ending violence against women as a pivotal part of their mission. The campaign was dedicated to raising awareness about the rape and murder of two lesbian women in a Johannesburg township and called for sexual orientation to be specifically recognised as grounds for protection by police and justice systems.
This particular petition ended up gathering almost thousand signatures from individuals making up over different countries-this forced the government to recognize this issue. The government agreed to meeting Funda and in South Africa passed its first law against hate crimes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
LGBT rights in Jamaica. LGBT rights in Uganda. LGBT rights in Zimbabwe. Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 21 November Persistent Challenges and Emerging Issues: Persistent Challenges and Emerging Issues. Retrieved 8 September Encyclopedia of Rape and Sexual Violence. A Night of Dostoevskian Smiles and Sadean excesses.
Retrieved 12 March — via academia.
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Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice. How Can We End It? The Torture Of Lesbians. The rise of 'corrective rape' in South Africa" pdf. Homophobic Violence in Canada. University of Toronto, Widney; Cooper, Gail More Than a Name: Retrieved 9 September Smith , p. Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society.
Retrieved February 11, The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing.
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